The growing field of nanotechnology and its many applications have led to the irregular release of nanoparticles (NPs), with unintended effects on the environment and continued contamination of water bodies. Metallic NPs are used more frequently in extreme environmental conditions due to their higher efficiency, which attracts more attention in various applications. Due to improper pre-treatment of biosolids, inefficient wastewater treatment practices, and other unregulated agricultural practices continue to contaminate the environment. In particular, the uncontrolled use of NPs in various industrial applications has led to damage to the microbial flora and caused irreplaceable damage to animals and plants. This study focuses on the effect of different doses, types, and compositions of NP on the ecosystem. The review also mentions the impact of various metallic NPs on microbial ecology, their interactions with microorganisms, ecotoxicity studies, and dosage evaluation of the NPs, mainly focused on the review article. However, further research is still needed to understand the complexity of interactions between NPs and microbes in soil and aquatic ecosystems.